Bunions Causes Indicators And Treatment Options

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Overview

A bunion is a bony bump that forms on the joint at the base of your big toe. A bunion forms when your big toe pushes against your next toe, forcing the joint of your big toe to get bigger and stick out. The skin over the bunion might be red and sore. Wearing tight, narrow shoes might cause bunions or might make them worse. Bunions can also develop as a result of an inherited structural defect, stress on your foot or a medical condition, such as arthritis. Smaller bunions (bunionettes) also can develop on the joint of your little toes.

Causes
You are usually born with a foot type that leads to bunion formation. Flat feet with increased flexibility are most likely to form bunions. Abnormal mechanics increase the bunion formation over time. Other causes of bunions include osteoarthritis, gout, rheumatoid arthritis, trauma, and neurovascular disease.
SymptomsThe most common symptoms of foot bunions are toe Position, the toe points inwards towards the other toes in the foot into the hallux adbucto valgus position and may even cross over the next toe. Bony Lump, swelling on the outer side of the base of the toe which protrudes outwards. Redness, over the bony lump where it becomes inflamed. Hard Skin, over the bony lump known as a callus. Pain, it is often painful around the big toe, made worse by pressure on the toe and weight bearing activities. Change in Foot Shape, Your whole foot may gradually change shape for example getting wider. Stiffness, the big toe often becomes stiff and may develop arthritis. Foot bunions are more common with increasing age. They develop gradually overtime from repeated force through the big toe and left untreated, become more pronounced with worsening symptoms.

Diagnosis
Before examining your foot, the doctor will ask you about the types of shoes you wear and how often you wear them. He or she also will ask if anyone else in your family has had bunions or if you have had any previous injury to the foot. In most cases, your doctor can diagnose a bunion just by examining your foot. During this exam, you will be asked to move your big toe up and down to see if you can move it as much as you should be able to. The doctor also will look for signs of redness and swelling and ask if the area is painful. Your doctor may want to order X-rays of the foot to check for other causes of pain, to determine whether there is significant arthritis and to see if the bones are aligned properly.

Non Surgical Treatment
Bunions can develop at any time. Although bunions often require no medical treatment you should consult your family doctor/chiropodist/podiatrist. Treatment options vary depending on the severity of your bunion and the amount of pain it causes you. Although they don't always cause problems, bunions are permanent unless surgically corrected. If the cushioning sac of fluid (bursa) over the affected joint becomes inflamed (bursitis), a bunion can be very painful and interfere with your normal activities. Bunions may get larger and more painful, making nonsurgical treatment less effective. Apply a non-medicated bunion pad around the bony bump. If a bunion becomes inflamed or painful, apply an ice pack two to three times daily to Do compression socks help with Achilles tendonitis? reduce swelling. Wear shoes with a wide and deep toe box. Avoid shoes with heels higher than 2 inches (5.1 centimeters).


Surgical Treatment
Orthopaedic surgeons use many different surgical procedures to treat bunions. The common goal of these procedures is to realign the joint, relieve pain, and correct deformity. These procedures include repair of the Tendons and Ligaments Around the Big Toe. These tissues may be too tight on one side and too loose on the other, creating an imbalance that causes the big toe to drift toward the others. Often combined with an osteotomy, this procedure shortens the loose tissues and lengthens the tight ones. Removal of the damaged joint surfaces, followed by the insertion of screws, wires, or plates to hold the surfaces together until it heals. Used for patients with severe bunions, severe arthritis, and when other procedures have failed. Removal of the bump on the toe joint, used only for an enlargement of the bone with no drifting of the big toe. This procedure is seldom used because it rarely corrects the cause of the bunion. Removal of the damaged portion of the joint, used mainly for patients who are older, have had previous bunion surgery, or have severe arthritis. This creates a flexible "scar" joint. The surgical cutting and realignment of the joint. Your orthopaedic surgeon will choose the procedure best suited to your condition.